1. Cholesterol is one of the organic molecules in our body, but it has an interesting difference: we eat, make, store and discard cholesterol - they are all different and variable.
2. The cholesterol pool in our body is indispensable for life. If there is no cholesterol, there is no life.
3. Cholesterol exists in 2 ways - non-esterified or "free" (UC) esterified (CE) - and this figure determines whether (among other things) we can absorb or store cholesterol.
4. Most of the cholesterol we eat is in the esterified (CE) form. This type of cholesterol is not absorbed and excreted from our intestine (that is, it leaves our body with feces). this is because CE cholesterol is not only esterified but also competes with UC, which is available in much larger amounts for absorption in the bile duct.
5. The dominant source of cholesterol in our body is the reabsorption of the cholesterol (ie endogenous cholesterol) that we synthesize in our body. So most of the cholesterol in our body is produced by our own body.
6. The cholesterol control process has many levels of control and is extremely complex and versatile. In general, the focus is only on the absorption aspect, but the synthesis aspect is also complex and requires a high degree of control.
7. Eating cholesterol has little effect on your body's cholesterol levels. Any person who tells you otherwise is irrelevant in this regardless of their expertise. Dietary cholesterol restrictions from the Canadian Health Guidelines have been lifted. There are a lot of unfortunately that saturated fats still cause vascular occlusion.
8. Cholesterol and triglycerides are not soluble in plasma (i.e. they are insoluble in water) and are therefore said to be hydrophobic (water repellent).
9. Cholesterol needs to be carried by a special protein-coated carrier called lipoprotein to transport it anywhere in your body, for example, from your liver to the cardiovascular artery.
10. These "vessels", called lipoproteins, leave the liver and undergo a maturation process, removing most of the triglyceride "cargo" in the form of free fatty acids, making lipoproteins smaller and richer in cholesterol.
11. Special proteins, called apoproteins, play an important role in the transport of lipoproteins in the body and their interaction with other cells. The most important of these are the apoB class consisting of VLDL, IDL and LDL particles, and the apoA-I class consisting mainly of HDL particles.
12. The transport of cholesterol in plasma takes place in both directions, from the liver and small intestine to the surrounding organs, and from the organs to the liver and small intestine.
13. The main function of apoB-containing particles is to transport energy (triglyceride) to the muscles and phospholipids to all cells. The cholesterol of the cells is carried back to the liver. Particles containing apoA-I transport cholesterol back to steroidogenic (steroid producing) tissues, adipocytes (cholesterol ester storage organ) and eventually to the liver, intestine, or steroidogenic tissue.
14. All lipoproteins are part of the human lipid transport system and work in harmony with each other to effectively transport lipids. As you will have grasped, this transport pattern is extremely complex and lipoproteins constantly change the central and surface lipids.
15. Unfortunately, it is pointless and insufficient to only look at LDL and HDL levels and make comments while measuring cholesterol.